Italian Renaissance Sculpture c. Renaissance art was also coloured by a strong belief in Humanism and the nobility of Man. It began in Florence, being inspired by individuals such as the architect Filippo Brunelleschi , the sculptor Donatello , the painter Tommaso Masaccio and the theorist Leon Battista Alberti , and financed by the Medici Family. The arts in Northern Europe notably Flanders, Holland, Germany and England also underwent a renaissance, particularly in oil painting, printmaking and to a lesser extent wood-carving, although this so-called Northern Renaissance developed somewhat independently due to the Reformation c. Early Renaissance Sculpture Given the respect accorded to the Italian Renaissance, it’s easy to forget that many Italian artists were strongly influenced by Gothic traditions and craftsmanship. Renaissance sculptors, in particular, were indebted to their Gothic predecessors. One need only study the reliefs on the facades and doorways of 12th century cathedrals to see the extraordinary three-dimensional realism and emotionalism which was being achieved centuries before the Renaissance. The big difference between Gothic and Renaissance sculptors is that the names of the latter are now world-famous, while many of the former are unknown. Bearing this in mind, Early Renaissance sculptors sought to improve further on Gothic works, taking much of their inspiration from Classical Roman and Greek sculpture. In so doing, they injected their statues with a range of emotion and imbued them with new energy and thought.

History of Sculpture

Wielbark culture in the early 3rd century Chernyakhov culture , in the early 4th century Roman Empire Gothic invasions in the 3rd century Upon their arrival on the Pontic Steppe , the Germanic tribes adopted the ways of the Eurasian nomads. The first Greek references to the Goths call them Scythians, since this area along the Black Sea historically had been occupied by an unrelated people of that name.

The application of that designation to the Goths appears to be not ethnological but rather geographical and cultural – Greeks regarded both the ethnic Scythians and the Goths as barbarians. In fact, the Scandinavian influence on Pomerania and today’s northern Poland from c. Migrations and contact with Rome[ edit ] See also: Gothic Wars Around AD, in Central Europe, the first movements of the Migration Period were occurring, as Germanic tribes began moving south-east from their ancestral lands at the mouth of River Vistula , putting pressure on the Germanic tribes from the north and east.

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Etymology[ edit ] The earliest use of the word ogive is found in the 13th century sketchbook of Villard de Honnecourt , from Picardy in northern France. The OED considers the French term’s origin obscure; it might come from the Late Latin obviata, the feminine perfect passive participle of obviare, meaning the one who has met or encountered the other. The traditional or secant ogive is a surface of revolution of the same curve that forms a Gothic arch ; that is, a circular arc , of greater radius than the diameter of the cylindrical section “shank” , is drawn from the edge of the shank until it intercepts the axis.

If this arc is drawn so that it meets the shank at zero angle that is, the distance of the centre of the arc from the axis, plus the radius of the shank, equals the radius of the arc , then it is called a tangent or spitzer ogive. This is a very common ogive for high velocity supersonic rifle bullets.

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Net vault of Prague Cathedral — Flamboyant rib vaults with ornamental ribs at Lady Chapel of Ely Cathedral begun Fan-shaped rib vaults at Peterborough Cathedral — Both the pointed arch and the rib vault had been used in romanesque architecture , but Gothic builders refined them and used them to much greater effect. They made the structures lighter and stronger, and thus allowed the great heights and expanses of stained glass found in Gothic cathedrals. This required massive columns, thick walls and small windows, and naturally limited the height of the building.

The pointed or broken arch, introduced during the Romanesque period, was stronger, lighter, and carried the thrust outwards, rather than directly downwards. The vault was supported by thin ribs or arches of stone, which reached downwards and outwards to cluster around supporting pillars along the inside of the walls. The earlier rib vaults, used at Notre Dame, Noyon, and Laon, were divided by the ribs into six compartments, and could only cross a limited space.

In later cathedral construction, the design was improved, and the rib vaults had only four compartments, and could cover a wider span; a single vault could cross the nave, and fewer pillars were needed. The four-part vault was used at Amiens, Reims, and the other later cathedrals, and eventually at cathedrals across Europe. At Notre-Dame de Paris , the massive buttresses counter the outward thrust from the rib vaults of the nave. Later flying buttresses of the apse of Notre-Dame 14th century reached 15 meters from the wall to the counter-supports.

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Wielbark culture in the early 3rd century Chernyakhov culture , in the early 4th century Roman Empire Gothic invasions in the 3rd century Upon their arrival on the Pontic Steppe , the Germanic tribes adopted the ways of the Eurasian nomads. The first Greek references to the Goths call them Scythians, since this area along the Black Sea historically had been occupied by an unrelated people of that name.

The application of that designation to the Goths appears to be not ethnological but rather geographical and cultural – Greeks regarded both the ethnic Scythians and the Goths as barbarians. In fact, the Scandinavian influence on Pomerania and today’s northern Poland from c. Migrations and contact with Rome[ edit ] Around AD, in Central Europe, the first movements of the Migration Period were occurring, as Germanic tribes began moving south-east from their ancestral lands at the mouth of River Vistula , putting pressure on the Germanic tribes from the north and east.

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The Goths (Gothic: Gut-þiuda; Latin: Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Goths dominated a vast area, which at its peak under the Germanic king Ermanaric and his sub-king Athanaric possibly.

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